¶ 1 Leave a comment on paragraph 1 0 Dear chair, Prof. Schwarz-Friesel, dear colleagues, dear ladies and gentlemen, thank you for inviting me to this panel to speak about the topic “Antisemitism and anti-Americanism on the Internet.” Many of the presentations at this conference have shown that fantasies of Jewish world rule remain a staple of antisemitism. However, it appears that America has turned into a synonym for the idea of the same hallucinated conspiratorial world controlling elite that in antisemitic worldviews has traditionally been identified as the “Elders of Zion”, “World-finance-Jewry” or in terms of similar concepts.
¶ 2 Leave a comment on paragraph 2 0 The late Robert Wistrich wrote that when people “evoke America, nowadays they often mean ‘Jewish power’ – ‘domination’ of Hollywood, the media, high finance, the Congress, the Pentagon, and the White House by American Jewry.” Prof. Schwarz-Friesel has noted as well that America plays a major role in the construction of pejorative implications that are interpreted as significations of a conspiratorial Jewish world rule. Tropes such as “Jewish Bankers determine American election campaigns” recode the antisemitic paranoia that Jews have too much influence. I would like to show in this presentation that antisemitism and anti-Americanism coincide to form the fundament of a conspiratorial worldview that – cynically – sees the internet as a central tool in a quest for the enlightenment and redemption of humanity. The social media platform You Tube on which I have been focusing my recent research offers a large number of videos that promote this belief. I am going to show you some examples presently. But we are also going to look at the comments that viewers write in response to these video clips in order to see, how people actually interpret what they see in them.
The intersection of antisemitism and anti-Americanism
¶ 3 Leave a comment on paragraph 3 0 Let me begin with a few words about the intersection of antisemitism and anti-Americanism as a phenomenon in general, before I will talk more specifically about the role of the internet in this context.
¶ 4 Leave a comment on paragraph 4 0 For the matter of conceptual clarifications it should be said that the term anti-Americanism is used in the literature to refer to a way of bashing and demonizing America that cannot be explained sufficiently by disagreement with American policies and that, as has been noted by Paul Hollander, bears some kind of family resemblance with attitudes such as “racism, sexism, or anti-Semitism.” Authors such as Andrei Markovits , Brendon O’Connor Barry Rubin or Alvin Rosenfeld, have noted that anti-Americanism expresses itself amongst others in the reduction of America to a set of negative stereotypes, the scapegoating of America for all kind of social, cultural or political problems, one-sided and unbalanced condemnations of the United States and a remarkable lust for and popularity of criticizing it. It’s similarities with antisemitism, however, go beyond these conceptual characteristics and can for example be seen in the fact that like Israel in antisemitic discourse, America is often portrayed as the ultimate culprit for misery in the world. We remember the 2003 Eurobarometer poll, in which Israel topped the list of countries seen by European citizens as a threat to world peace. 59 percent of respondents in this survey indicated that they see Israel as a threat. The second place in this ranking, however, was shared by North Korea and Iran with the United States of America. In the globally conducted WIN-Gallup 2013 “End of year survey,” it was the United States that, actually, headed the list of the countries that were seen as the biggest threat to world peace by a large margin. 24% of the respondents in this poll believed that the USA was the most dangerous country, only distantly followed by Pakistan that was seen in such a way by merely 8 % of respondents. China came in third with 6 percent and place number four was shared by North Korea, Iran and Israel, with 5 percent each. Reflecting these views, German philosopher Peter Slotderdijk contended in 2002 that “the two rogue states of contemporary world politics are (…) the USA and Israel.”
¶ 5 Leave a comment on paragraph 5 0 Such opinions are closely related to the belief that all kind of conflicts and upheavals in the world have intentionally been started by America or by the Jews. While Jews, in traditional antisemitic narratives, were made responsible for the French revolution, the evolution of capitalism and the rise of communism at the same time, World War I, even World War II and actually for all the ills of modernity, there is the idea that current political conflicts have deliberately been brought about by America as part of an imperialist plot to consolidate US-world-hegemony. This idea is expressed quite bluntly in a music video clip that I found on You Tube and from which I am going to show you a sequence presently. The vocals are in German but I added English subtitles.
¶ 6 Leave a comment on paragraph 6 0 At this point of the presentation a sequence from the following music video clip was shown: Revolutionz Muzik,“Shah Reza – Letzte Wa(h)rnung (Official Video) prod. by ULTIM8 BEATZ,” You Tube, published April 24, 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PcHMn8_gNvg. Following are the lyrics from the sequence in their German original and in English translation:
|Na guck dir Irak, Afghanistan oder Syrien an,|
und sieh dir Ägypten, Jemen und dann noch Libyen an.
Was ist passiert? Diese Menschen hatten die Lügen so satt. Das hat die USA ausgenutzt und nun führen sie ihr Land. Du glaubst mir nicht? OK, ich erklär dir das ganze mal: All die Revolutionen wurden von den Amis geplant.
Jede einzelne, ich hab auch die Beweise dafür. Sagt dir Otpor was? Nein? Ja du weißt es natürlich nicht. Ich bin kein Fake-Rapper, nenn so viele beim Namen: wie die Freimaurer, Bilderberg oder die Illuminaten. Ich rede nicht oberflächlich, das ist ziemlich geheim. Bei dem was ich sage und rappe geh‘ ich tief ins Detail. Otpor wurde gegründet und wird von Amis finanziert,
und die Revolutionen von Ihnen sind alle inszeniert. Sie machen, dass Regierungen gestürzt und ersetzt werden,
und treiben dort die Menschen bis an ihre Grenzwerte.
Destabilisieren Länder so in einem Ausmaß, dass Amerika die Kontrolle dort dann auch hat,
bestimmen kann was gut oder was schlecht ist. Fakt ist, das ist alles eine gut durchdachte Taktik.
|Look at Iraq, Afghanistan or Syria,|
and look at Egypt, Yemen and then Libya.
What happened? These people were so tired of the lies.
That has been exploited the USA, which are now leading their countries. You do not believe me? OK, I’ll explain: All the revolutions were planned by the Americans.
Every single one of them. I also have the evidence for that. Have you heard of Otpor? No? Of course you don’t know.
I’m not a fake rapper. I call things by their names: like the Freemasons, Bilderberg or the Illuminati. I am not talking superficially, but unveil what has remained secret. What I say and rap goes deep into the details. Otpor was founded and is financed by America,
and their revolutions are all staged. They cause the overthrow and replacement of governments and drive people there to their limits.
Destabilize countries, so that
America gains control over them too, and so that America can determine what is good or bad.
Fact is, that’s all a well thought-out tactic.
¶ 7 Leave a comment on paragraph 7 0 This was just a short sequence from a 10 minutes video, in which America is portrayed as an intentional instigator of political conflict in a way very much reminiscent of the conspiratorial role attributed to the “Elders of Zion” or “World-Financial-Jewry” in traditional antisemitic narratives. That this parallel between a traditional antisemitic idea and the kind of America-bashing that we just saw is not just an abstract theoretical construction but actually exists in the minds of the viewers of this video, can be seen when we take a look at the comments that viewers write in response to this video:
¶ 9 Leave a comment on paragraph 9 0 In the picture above we see the comment: “Who pulls the strings in world politics? Jewish Zionist banksters and their Freemason servants.” The video that we just saw claims to unveil the secret plot of a powerful elite that dominates the world. And even though it refers to America to identify that ruling force, the viewer who comments here thinks of Jews and Zionists. This is just one example which shows, how Jews and America became codes for the same kind of idea, namely: a secret oppressive conspiracy that despotically rules the world and exploits humanity.
¶ 11 Leave a comment on paragraph 11 0 The picture above has been taken from the Facebook fan page of the creator of the previously shown video – an artist who, invoking the Persian king, calls himself “Shah Reza” – and is just as instructive of the worldview that being promoted there.
¶ 12 Leave a comment on paragraph 12 0 The comment in the picture says “the truth is ugly,” and the following commentator responds “yes, it is indeed.” So in the eyes of the artists and his followers, this is what the truth looks like: American leaders assemble on behalf of Judaism in a cruel occult ritual to murder a child. This image integrates much of the symbolism that conspiratorial fantasies revolve around. So it’s very explicit in placing America and Judaism in this context. The artist presents himself as a redeemer who wants to enlighten humanity about the alleged evil conspiracy represented in the image above. The same message is also coded in the following picture that we saw in the previously shown sequence, capturing a scene from the movie the Matrix.
¶ 14 Leave a comment on paragraph 14 0 How so I will explain in a bit. In the meantime I would like to ask you to keep that image in mind, because this is a motif, which appears a lot in contents, propagating antisemitism and anti-Americanism and it is very instructive in this respect. We will come back to this a little later.
¶ 15 Leave a comment on paragraph 15 0 The web is rife with representations of an alleged Jewish-American plot to dominate humanity, as for example this image here, which is a screenshot from another You Tube Video.
¶ 17 Leave a comment on paragraph 17 0 A comment on the video from which the above picture was taken reads: “the zionjewmerican empire attacking north Korea for financial takeover of the entire world by the israeli rothschilds banksters.” “Zion-jew-merican” – this word-creation demonstrates quite unequivocally how Zionism, Judaism and America are interpreted a synonymous incarnations of the alleged conspiratorial oppressive rule that all conspiracy theories in one way or another fantasize about.
¶ 24 Leave a comment on paragraph 24 0 And it may not come as a surprise that these fantasies of Jewish-American domination are not just imagined in terms of secret networks of powerful political and economic leaders, but also in terms of metaphysical forces.
¶ 27 Leave a comment on paragraph 27 0 The hexagonal cloud pattern over Saturn that is captured in the above picture form the NASA web site became the object of wild conspiratorial fantasies. Conspiracy theorists believe that this pattern would be an intelligent design, created by a metaphysical force that rules over humanity. The following scenes are cut together from a 15 Minutes video which suggests that Jews and America are involved with this force that allegedly created that pattern.
¶ 28 Leave a comment on paragraph 28 0 At this point of the presentation a sequence from the following video was shown that had been retrieved from You Tube: Round SaturnsEye,“Inside this ”Illuminati Temple” will shock you! (R$E),” You Tube video, published, October 9, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uuT_4XElXOU. As the following screenshots from the presented sequence illustrate, the video employs a play with imagery of the above mentioned hexagonal cloud pattern over the planet Saturn, the Star of David, the American flag and various other graphic symbolizations of Judaism and the United States in order to suggest an identification of Jews and America with an extraterrestrial powerful force that allegedly controls humanity.
¶ 34 Leave a comment on paragraph 34 0 The association of the Star of David with a cloud pattern in space relates Jewish power to a metaphysical force that somehow is centered on the United States. The verse “The Hebrew writing said let there be light and there was light” from Genesis 1:3 is being repeated throughout the video like a refrain and then we see at the end of the shown sequence how light is rising over the statue of Columbia.
¶ 35 Leave a comment on paragraph 35 0 So how do we explain that America and Judaism both attract projections of such conspiratorial fantasies? Irwin M. Wall points out that while in the 19th and 20th century Jews were scapegoated for the ills of the modern age, America turned into the actual embodiment of modernity: “Jews,” Wall writes “historically were associated with modernization and anti-Semitism in Europe in the nineteenth century frequently focused on Jews as bankers, industrialists and capitalists. In the twentieth century, American capitalism could easily be pictured as a triumph of Jewish values and Jewish power, and antisemitic tropes, building on the famous Protocols of the Elders of Zion, saw a Jewish conspiracy behind Wall Street capitalists and Soviet Marxists both.”
¶ 37 Leave a comment on paragraph 37 0 Consistent with this idea, the above image (also from a You Tube video) illustrates the theory that Jews own America’s Federal Reserve, which in turn rules the world by controlling the international flow of money. Similarly former BBC sports reporter David Icke who turned into something like the superstar of conspiracy theory, portrays the USA as a tool in the palm of what he calls “Rothschild Zionists.”
¶ 39 Leave a comment on paragraph 39 0 At this point of the presentation a sequence from the following video was shown that had been retrieved from You Tube: David Icke, “David Icke – What Others Dare Not Say.” You Tube video, published May 23, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ojvQWO6fonE. The 11 seconds sequence that was cut from the 26 minutes You Tube video shows David Icke speaking at one of his stage performances. He presents the image, captured in Picture 15 above, displaying a Statute of Liberty in chains in front of an American flag, in which the white stars symbolizing the American states are replaced with a Star of David that carries the letter “Z” (probably standing for “Zionism”. Assumption of the author) in its middle. While doing this, Icke speaks the following words: “The American administration is utterly awash with Rothschild-Zionists, and this is not by accident. It is because they are agents of the dynasty or agents of the control system.”
¶ 41 Leave a comment on paragraph 41 0 As the superpower of our age, the United States of America can conveniently be turned into a scapegoat for everything that is wrong in the world. Hence, they are a likely target for the projections of conspiracy theorists who wish to identify a singular monolithic force that can be blamed exclusively for every real or imagined malaise in the universe. This may explain as well, why conspiratorial thinking, in addition to targeting Jews, also tends to focus on America. There are some more theoretical aspects that it would be worth mentioning in this context. But since we don’t have the time for that, I would like to move on, to talk about the meaning that anti-American-antisemitic world view attributes to the Internet: A meaning which goes quite beyond the quality of the internet as just another technical tool to communicate ideas.
The internet as a tool in an antisemitic and anti-American struggle for humanity’s redemption
¶ 42 Leave a comment on paragraph 42 0 Let’s return then, as previously announced, to the scene from the movie “The Matrix” that we saw in the first video and that is also captured in the screenshot below.
¶ 44 Leave a comment on paragraph 44 0 As mentioned, references to this scene are common in the representation of antisemitic and anti-American conspiracy views. It is the famous “blue-pill-red-pill-scene,” in which Neo, the hero of the movie, is offered the choice between a blue pill, representing the decision to remain in an illusionary dream world – a convenient but false state of awareness – and a red pill, standing for the readiness to be enlightened and to discover a concealed truth. We learn that the Matrix manipulates the awareness of people in order to hide a terrifying reality in which humans are slaves to extraterrestrial beings. Neo is then given the assignment to emancipate humanity from this slavery and false awareness. Remarkably, this theme reflects a major idea of Gnosticism, namely the human aspiration to redeem mankind, by its own effort, from the oppression of a metaphysical evil. The unraveling of a hidden truth, leading to the exposition of humanity’s alleged nemesis, is seen to be an essential part of that struggle. Micha Brumlik has shown that this gnostic notion has found a revival in traditional antisemitism. Indeed, antisemitism, cynically, has always assigned to itself a struggle for emancipation. Antisemites from Wilhelm Marr, over Eugen Dühring and Richard Wagner up to Adolf Hitler wanted to heal the world and emancipate humanity by freeing it from the alleged control of an almost omnipotent but clandestine “World-Finance-Jewry.” Consistent with this, current conspiracy theories that involve antisemitic and anti-American elements, typically present themselves as an enlightening struggle for humanity’s redemption.
¶ 45 Leave a comment on paragraph 45 0 At this point of the presentation a sequence from the following music video was shown that had been retrieved from You Tube: Ukvali TV, “Ukvali – Killuminati 2.0 (Official Video),” You Tube, published April 22, 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=23A1S8fxhSw. The performer in this video refers to himself as a “warrior of information.” As such, he pledges to emancipate humanity from a false state of awareness, allegedly covering the world’s oppression by a supreme alien force, which is referred to with symbolic images that evoke the United States of America and Judaism. Following are the lyrics of the sequence in their German original and in English translation, in addition to some screenshots from the video:
|Es ist nicht immer leicht, das Leben ist ein Einzelkampf. Doch du musst weitermachen, kämpf, und zeig keine Angst. Wach endlich auf, und schau wie der Hase läuft. Während ich das rap, hab ich das Auge im Fadenkreuz. Alles wird ferngesteuert, wie in einem Drehbuch. Die meisten sind am schlafen, während ich hier meinen Weg such. Seh‘ ich die Zeichen, und denke an Endzeit. Die letzte Offenbarung, das Ende der Menschheit. Jeder sieht die Zeichen, doch keiner versteht es. Die Menschen wachen erst auf, wenn es zu spät ist. Im Kampf gegen Satan verlieren sie den Glauben. Denn die meisten sind blind, und verschließen die Augen (…) Das hier was schief läuft, muss dir jetzt Bewusst sein. Und falls nicht, kontrolliert man dein Bewusstsein. Informier dich, wem das ganze Geld gehört.|
Wir sind allesamt Sklaven der Federal Reserve (…) Das allsehende Auge hat den Globus im Fokus. Menschen werden abgelenkt, Hokus Pokus. Das alte Testament berichtet von Ereignissen.
Die wir als Ankunft Außerirdischer bezeichneten.
Lichter die vom Himmel kamen, Engel die gefallen sind. Plötzlich kam die Sintflut, und darauf wurden alle blind. (…) Obama Merkel etc. sind Marionetten. Und bilden die Fassade für ein kapitales Verbrechen. Ich bin Infokrieger, es ist ein krieg am toben. Das hier ist mein Kampf, gegen die da oben. Heb die Faust für die Revolution. Meine Waffe ist das Mic [Mikrofon, Anm. d. Verf.] und die Raps die Munition.
|It’s not easy, life is a lonely struggle. But you have to carry on! Keep fighting! Don’t be afraid! Wake up eventually and face what’s going on. While I am rapping this, I am focused on “the eye”. Everything is controlled like in a movie script. Most people are sleeping, while I am searching for the way. I see the signs, and think of the end times, the last revelation, the end of humanity. Everybody sees the signs but no one understands them. People only wake up, when it’s too late. In the struggle against Satan they are losing the faith. Because most people are blind and close their eyes (…) You have to be aware that something’s wrong. And if you aren’t, your awareness is controlled. Inform yourself who owns all the money. We’re all slaves of the Federal Reserve (…)|
The all-seeing eye is focused on the globe. People are distracted. Hocus Pocus. The old testament tells of incidents that we call the arrival of aliens. Lights from the skies. Angels that fell. The deluge came and suddenly we all were blind (…) Obama, Merkel, etc. are puppets and provide the facade for a capital crime. I am a warrior of information. A war is going on. This is my struggle against those who are above us. Raise your fist to the revolution. My weapon is the microphone and my rap the ammunition.
¶ 54 Leave a comment on paragraph 54 0 In the previous sequence, we hear a call for revolution. And this revolution, it is supposed, begins with challenging an allegedly false awareness and unveiling a hidden truth, allegedly covering an alien force that secretly oppresses humanity.
¶ 56 Leave a comment on paragraph 56 0 Conspiracy theorists, as symbolized by the picture above, like to portray themselves as free and independent thinkers who have the courage to depart from the mainstream in order to unveil a truth that the system, allegedly, is trying to conceal and to thereby actively battle that system. Respective contents on the web are full with expressions such as “Audiatur et altera pars” (let the other side be heard as well) or “If you want to know who controls you, look who you are not allowed to criticize.” The latter idiom is, as in the tweet displayed below, often falsely attributed to Voltaire. In fact it has been coined by American neo-Nazi Kevin Alfred Storm.
¶ 58 Leave a comment on paragraph 58 0 On their quest to “enlighten” humanity, conspiracy theorists see the internet as a tool to outmaneuver the mainstream media that, consistent with traditional antisemitic ideas of Jewish media-control, is allegedly censored by some clandestine Jewish-American elite. They therefore call explicitly on people to shun TV and Newspapers and to “educate” themselves, using “alternative media” sic. the internet, instead.
¶ 59 Leave a comment on paragraph 59 0 At this point of the presentation a sequence from the following music video was shown that had been retrieved from You Tube: Revolutionz Muzik,“Shah Reza – Letzte Wa(h)rnung (Official Video) prod. by ULTIM8 BEATZ,” You Tube, published April 24, 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PcHMn8_gNvg. Following are the lyrics of the sequence in their German original and in English translation.
|Bitte glaub‘ nichts mehr, was du im Fernsehen siehst.|
Alles ist gelogen, alles wird nur zensiert. Verbrenne die Zeitungen, die die Masse manipulieren. Schmeiß den TV raus und mach dich frei.
Jetzt folgen Infos. Die Wahrheit ist was ich schreib.
|Please don’t believe anymore what you see on TV. It’s all lies. It’s all censored. Burn the newspapers that manipulate the masses. Throw out the TV and free yourself. Information is following. The truth is what I write.|
¶ 60 Leave a comment on paragraph 60 0 At this point of the presentation a sequence from the following video was shown that had been retrieved from You Tube: Aufklärungskanal, “Verschwörungsbeobachtungen für Einsteiger! (2014),” You Tube, published May 18, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HUgCAcnQJ3Y. Following are the words of the spoken text from the video in their German original and in English translation.
|Informieren, informieren, informieren. Die gemeinsten Waffen, die die da oben haben, sind die Propagandamedien. Sie versuchen dir durch die Fernsehprogramme, Radiostationen und deine Zeitungen, Dinge zu erklären, die nicht immer wahr sein müssen. Kündige deine Abos und informiere dich in alternativen und neuen digitalen Medien und helfe anderen Freunden, Nachbarn und Angehörigen das auch zu tun. Verbreite keine Angst, sondern stelle Fragen. Fragen, die man mit Hilfe des Internets und den richtigen Büchern beantworten kann.||Inform yourself, inform yourself, inform yourself. The meanest weapons of the elites are the propaganda media. They use TV programs, radio channels and newspapers to tell you things that don’t have to be true. Cancel your subscriptions and inform yourself in alternative and digital media und help your friends, neighbors and relatives to do the same. Don’t spread fear, but rather ask questions. Questions that can be answered with the help of the internet and the right books.|
¶ 61 Leave a comment on paragraph 61 0 To conclude: In what is portrayed as a struggle for redemption and emancipation, conspiracy theory relates to the internet as a tool to outmaneuver an alleged media cartel that serves the imagined oppression of humanity by a powerful force, frequently associated with Judaism and America. It is a bitter irony that honorable ideals such as free speech, independent thinking and emancipation are hijacked in this context to legitimize antisemitic and anti-American hate speech. But yet, as mentioned before, the sense to be on an emancipatory mission for redemption, cynically, has always been a cornerstone of antisemitic worldview. Unhappy with the world, Antisemites, like Gnostics, have been expressing a progressive attitude in so far, that they have been pushing for some kind of fundamental change or revolution. To be sure, what they imagined and battled as the reasons for the alleged miseries that they wanted to eradicate have been the products of their insane fantasies. But nevertheless, Hitler saw himself as a revolutionary, Wilhelm Marr saw himself as a revolutionary, Richard Wagner saw himself as a revolutionary, and the producers of these videos that we just saw, present themselves as revolutionaries as well. And I think that explains in part why antisemitic and anti-American worldviews not only exist on the political right, but, as we all know, are also very popular among the progressive Left. Hence, if we are serious in our wish to fight antisemitism and other related forms of defamation, discrimination and hatred we have to stop to reduce antisemitism to an authoritarian, conformist worldview against which everybody who professes to modern humanist and progressive values is immune.
¶ 64 Leave a comment on paragraph 64 0 Deb Deb, “The Jewish Zionists want America to find an excuse to start a war with Nth.Korea then they’ll move on to Iran. They want absolute world domination …,” viewer comment on You Tube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iArfJdea0Wk, accessed: October 27, 2017.
¶ 68 Leave a comment on paragraph 68 0 Gundula Stehfick, “Goyim der Welt vereint euch!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!,” viewer comment on You Tube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=23A1S8fxhSw, accessed: October 28, 2017.
¶ 69 Leave a comment on paragraph 69 0 hal us. “the zionjewmerican empire attacking north korea for financial take over of the entire world by the israeli rothschilds banksters.” Viewer comment on You Tube, accessed November 29, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iArfJdea0Wk.
¶ 74 Leave a comment on paragraph 74 0 Jay Jbg, “ +The Codex wo gehobelt wird fallen bekanntlicherweise leider auch Späne, dennoch ist USRAEL schlimmer gewesen als Hitler….“ Viewer comment on You Tube, accessed October 16, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=23A1S8fxhSw.
¶ 75 Leave a comment on paragraph 75 0 Jay Jbg, “Fuck USRAEL!!! KRIEGSTREIBER MÖRDER DIEBE NR.1 AUF DIESER WELT!!!,” viewer comment on You Tube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ln0dNikwJhA&t=11, accessed: October 27, 2017.
¶ 79 Leave a comment on paragraph 79 0 Neugröschel, M. Anti-Semitism, Anti-Americanism and the European Quest for Identity. Jerusalem: Helmut Kohl Institute for European Studies, Konrad Adenauer Foundation, Working Paper 149/2015, 2015.
¶ 81 Leave a comment on paragraph 81 0 Revolutionz Muzik. “Shah Reza – Letzte Wa(h)rnung (Official Video) prod. by ULTIM8 BEATZ.” You Tube, published 24 April 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PcHMn8_gNvg.
¶ 82 Leave a comment on paragraph 82 0 Ridderbusch, K. “Laut Umfrage sehen EU-Bürger in Israel die größte Gefahr für den Weltfrieden.“ Die Welt, November 4, 2003. https://www.welt.de/print-welt/article270732/Laut-Umfrage-sehen-EU-Buerger-in-Israel-die-groesste-Gefahr-fuer-den-Weltfrieden.html.
¶ 85 Leave a comment on paragraph 85 0 Schwarz-Friesel, M. „Hass via Internet.“ In: Sprache und Kommunikation im technischen Zeitalter: Wieviel Internet (v)erträgt unsere Gesellschaft?, edited by K. Marx, M. Schwarz-Friesel. Berlin [u. a.]: de Gruyter, 2013.
¶ 86 Leave a comment on paragraph 86 0 Shah Reza Fan Site. “Die Wahrheit ist häßlich.“ Facebook, published April 5, 2013, https://www.facebook.com/10150131677985497/photos/rpp.10150131677985497/10152719164255497/?type=3&theater.
¶ 87 Leave a comment on paragraph 87 0 Springtoifel18. “Wer zieht die Fäden in der Weltpolitik? Jüdische Zionistenbankster und ihre Freimaurer-Diener.“ Viewer Comment on You Tube, accessed July 22, 2018. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PcHMn8_gNvg. . Accessed: 22 July 2018.
¶ 91 Leave a comment on paragraph 91 0 Wall, I. M. “Anti-Americanism in France and the Crisis over Iraq.” In Anti-Americanism: History, Causes, Themes, vol. 4, In the 21st Century, edited by B. O’Connor and M. Griffiths, 19-40. Oxford, Westport: Greenwood World Publishing, 2007.
¶ 93 Leave a comment on paragraph 93 0 WIN/Gallup International. “WIN/Gallup International’s annual global End of Year survey shows a brighter outlook for 2014.” Public announcement, December 30, 2013.
¶ 96 Leave a comment on paragraph 96 0  M. Schwarz-Friesel, „Hass via Internet.“ In Sprache und Kommunikation im technischen Zeitalter: Wieviel Internet (v)erträgt unsere Gesellschaft?, ed. K. Marx, M. Schwarz-Friesel (Berlin [u. a.]: de Gruyter, 2013).
¶ 102 Leave a comment on paragraph 102 0  There is a spectrum of connecting points between antisemitism and anti-americanism that can’t be covered here. One aspect I would like to point out, however, because it has been the focus of my previous research is that both Jews and America are frequently framed as outgroups in distinction to which in-group identities are being conceptualized. See: M. Neugröschel, Anti-Semitism, Anti-Americanism and the European Quest for Identity (Jerusalem: Helmut Kohl Institute for European Studies, Konrad Adenauer Foundation, Working Paper 149/2015, 2015).
¶ 103 Leave a comment on paragraph 103 0  K. Ridderbusch, “Laut Umfrage sehen EU-Bürger in Israel die größte Gefahr für den Weltfrieden,“ Die Welt, November 4, 2003, https://www.welt.de/print-welt/article270732/Laut-Umfrage-sehen-EU-Buerger-in-Israel-die-groesste-Gefahr-fuer-den-Weltfrieden.html.
¶ 104 Leave a comment on paragraph 104 0  WIN/Gallup International, “WIN/Gallup International’s annual global End of Year survey shows a brighter outlook for 2014,” (public announcement, Zurich, December 30, 2013).
¶ 106 Leave a comment on paragraph 106 0  Revolutionz Muzik, “Shah Reza – Letzte Wa(h)rnung (Official Video) prod. by ULTIM8 BEATZ,” You Tube, published 24 April 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PcHMn8_gNvg.
¶ 107 Leave a comment on paragraph 107 0  Springtoifel18, “Wer zieht die Fäden in der Weltpolitik? Jüdische Zionistenbankster und ihre Freimaurer-Diener,“ viewer Comment on You Tube, accessed July 22, 2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PcHMn8_gNvg.
¶ 108 Leave a comment on paragraph 108 0  Shah Reza Fan Site, “Die Wahrheit ist häßlich,“ Facebook, published April 5, 2013, https://www.facebook.com/10150131677985497/photos/rpp.10150131677985497/10152719164255497/?type=3&theater.
¶ 110 Leave a comment on paragraph 110 0  Revolutionz Muzik,“Shah Reza – Letzte Wa(h)rnung (Official Video) prod. by ULTIM8 BEATZ,” You Tube, published April 24, 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PcHMn8_gNvg.
¶ 112 Leave a comment on paragraph 112 0  hal us, “the zionjewmerican empire attacking north korea for financial take over of the entire world by the israeli rothschilds banksters,” viewer comment on You Tube, accessed November 29, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iArfJdea0Wk, (emphasis added).
¶ 115 Leave a comment on paragraph 115 0  Jay Jbg, “Fuck USRAEL!!! KRIEGSTREIBER MÖRDER DIEBE NR.1 AUF DIESER WELT!!!,” viewer comment on You Tube, accessed October 27, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ln0dNikwJhA&t=11.
¶ 117 Leave a comment on paragraph 117 0  Jay Jbg, “ +The Codex wo gehobelt wird fallen bekanntlicherweise leider auch Späne, dennoch ist USRAEL schlimmer gewesen als Hitler …,“ viewer comment on You Tube, accessed October 16, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=23A1S8fxhSw.
¶ 119 Leave a comment on paragraph 119 0  Round SaturnsEye,“Inside this ”Illuminati Temple” will shock you! (R$E),” You Tube video, published, October 9, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uuT_4XElXOU.
¶ 124 Leave a comment on paragraph 124 0  I.M. Wall, “Anti-Americanism in France and the Crisis over Iraq,” in Anti-Americanism: History, Causes, Themes, vol. 4, In the 21st Century, ed. B. O’Connor and M. Griffiths (Oxford, Westport: Greenwood World Publishing, 2007), 19-40.
¶ 128 Leave a comment on paragraph 128 0  Revolutionz Muzik,“Shah Reza – Letzte Wa(h)rnung (Official Video) prod. by ULTIM8 BEATZ,” You Tube, published April 24, 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PcHMn8_gNvg.
¶ 140 Leave a comment on paragraph 140 0  Upper right part: Illuminati Exposed (@illuminatoexpos), “Find out the truth,” Twitter, published October 8, 2017, https://twitter.com/illumunatiexpos/status/917044848795910144. Lower left part: Der Vegane Germane, “Deutschland und die Hochfinanz,” You Tube, published July 8, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jdjXArx1ix4&t=4s.