Wendi Bellar and Heidi A. Campbell: Building Social Sites of Collaborative Research: A Case Study of the Network for New Media, Religion, and Digital Culture Studies
¶ 1 Leave a comment on paragraph 1 0 When we talk about Digital Humanities, the conversation usually aligns itself around a certain set of principles – transparency, interdisciplinarity, collaborative connectivity (Krischenbaum, 2010) – rather than around a specific set of theories or methodologies (Spiro, 2012). It was in this spirit of these Digital Humanities values that the Network for New Media, Religion, and Digital Culture Studies (i.e. the Network) was conceived, constructed, and continues to operate. Indeed, the study of religion and new media, now more formally described as Digital Religion studies (Campbell 2013), is inherently interdisciplinary, engaging scholars from various backgrounds such as Architecture, Human Computer Interaction, Communication, Religious Studies, and Political Science. A proliferation of scholarly work on Digital Religion across disciplines provided the impetus to create a network that would connect diverse, international scholars, and provide the necessary tools and resources to answer questions related to the ways in which religion is practiced, and evolves, in online and offline spaces that are simultaneously connected (Campbell, 2017). The construction and growth of the Network played a vital role in the development of the growing subfield of Digital Religion, by providing a space to present research, interact with diverse scholars, and create new understandings. As much as Digital Religion is a study of the third space, the place in between and betwixt the online/offline dichotomy where new religious meanings and practices emerge (Hoover & Echchaibi, 2014), the Network seeks to serve as a third space for which our understandings of Digital Religion deepen and are refined by the sharpening of interdisciplinary collaboration.
¶ 2 Leave a comment on paragraph 2 0 The Network serves the goals of interdisciplinary collaboration and transparency in various ways, including an interactive bibliography, online scholar’s index, news feed, blog page, links to publications and press about research associated with the site, and an online toolbox with various resources for research. This chapter provides a case study of the construction of a collaborative research site through an examination of the mission of the Network, its tools and resources, and two research studies that were collaboratively conceived and executed through the site. The first section explores the conception of the Network, provides a walkthrough of the site as a whole with descriptions of the various tools and resources available, and provides discussion about how the various resources support an interdisciplinary and collaborative environment. The second section introduces two research studies that explored religious mobile applications and religious memes, and discusses the development and use of digital databases as a method for collaborative research. Finally, the chapter ends with a discussion on how the Network, and other sites like it, can continue to advocate and facilitate more interdisciplinary and collaborative Digital Religion research.
¶ 3 Leave a comment on paragraph 3 0 Just as interdisciplinarity, collaboration, and creativity are at the core of Digital Humanities, The Network mirrors these qualities in the context of Digital Religion by creating a repository of knowledge that crosses international boundaries and disciplinary fields, connecting diverse scholars in ways that promote knowledge collaboration, and documents, and makes visible, knowledge through the use of databases that provide new and experienced scholars alike an entry point into the study of new phenomenon related to Digital Religion. The goal of this chapter is to explain how the Network achieves these goals of collaborative research sites, while also looking to the future for new and better ways to study and understand how religion is understood, practiced, and reshaped in digital spaces.
Background on the Network for New Media & Digital Culture Studies
¶ 4 Leave a comment on paragraph 4 0 When I graduated with my PhD, I owned the whole literature. There were a couple of books and about three binders full of journal articles. And now, 15 years later, I can’t even keep up because people are interested in how religion and new media are interacting in area studies, in political science, in psychology…(International & interdisciplinary research sharing, 2012).
¶ 5 Leave a comment on paragraph 5 0 The quote above from a video on the Network homepage features Heidi Campbell, a researcher in the field of Digital Religion and the founder of the Network. Her statement speaks to one of the needs that led the creation of the site – the proliferation of scholars interested in studying religion and new media and the increase in studies being published about the phenomenon in a variety of journals. Campbell initially created the Network on a Wiki platform in 2009 as a way to collect and share resources with other scholars interested in the studying religion and the internet, before moving it to a website. Until the creation of the online site in 2010, there were many other sites that focused on a particular department or scholar’s work in the field, but there were no sites with the intent of showcasing leading research in the field as a whole, connecting scholars across international and disciplinary boundaries, and providing an online forum to facilitate collaboration. The Network, which was funded by a grant from the Evans/Glasscock Digital Humanities Project at Texas A&M University, is open to any students, scholars, or independent researchers who are interested in, and doing work at, the intersection of new media and religion.
¶ 6 Leave a comment on paragraph 6 0 Members of the Network are given the ability to add to the interactive bibliography, access the scholar’s index, and post news about events, publications or other interests related to the Network. They can also request the opportunity to submit a guest blog. There is a vetting process: those interested in becoming a member must submit a request to create a new account and provide a biographical statement including the reason for wanting to join the Network. Network facilitators independently vet each member. In this sense, the Network maintains its source credibility, which is an important characteristic of successful online communities (Ma & Agarwal, 2007). The vetting ensures that members are connecting with real students and scholars who have a vested interest in providing credible and reliable information.
¶ 7 Leave a comment on paragraph 7 0 On the homepage, digitalreligion.tamu.edu, a list of tabs is displayed including, Home, About, Bibliography, Scholars Index, News, Blog, Publications and Press, Researcher’s Toolbox, and Contact Us. The Home and About page orient members to the overall goals and mission of the site, which is to “offer an interactive space for researchers and others wishing to learn” more about the growing field (Homepage, n.d.). The other tabs provide interactive platforms on which to explore the leading research in the field as well as to connect with scholars who are studying similar themes in Digital Religion, such as identity, authority, community, and authenticity (Campbell, 2013). In addition to the main tabs on the homepage, there are also buttons for Facebook, Twitter, and an RSS feed where members and those interested in the Network can interact through social networking sites. The next section delves into these tabs, which provide key resources and features that lend themselves to a collaborative environment.
Knowledge Collaboration through Key Resources
¶ 8 Leave a comment on paragraph 8 0 There are four resources on the site that lend themselves to knowledge collaboration: the interactive bibliography, the scholar’s index, the news feed, and the blog. Knowledge collaboration refers specifically to “offering, adding to, recreating, recombining, modifying and integrating knowledge” and is a key feature of successful online communities (Faraj, Jarvenpaa, & Majchrzak, 2011, p. 1224). Each of the resources listed above specifically add to the collaborative knowledge of the group through various tools such as searching, tagging, messaging, and exporting.
¶ 9 Leave a comment on paragraph 9 0 The interactive bibliography (see Fig. 1) fits the definition of knowledge collaboration best because it is co-created by facilitators and members of the Network. Members can add their own or others’ publications to the bibliography. Currently the bibliography boasts more than 550 entries that have been categorized and are searchable across authors, titles, type of publication, year, and keywords.
¶ 11 Leave a comment on paragraph 11 0 The search function can be used by news scholars to find key articles on topics as varied as gender, 3D environments, and Zen, or by more established scholars to keep up with current research in key areas such as authority, identity, and community. In addition to being searchable from a variety of variables, the entire bibliography, or results from a specific search, or even just a single entry, can be opened in Google Scholar or exported to BibTex, RFT, End Note, XML, or RIS file format for easy formatting of works cited pages. Because digital scholarship is inherently interdisciplinary, creating repositories of scholarship that cross disciplinary fields and conversations is essential. The interactivity of this particular repository provides a unique collaboration among dispersed members with access to, and expertise in, a diverse set of literatures.
¶ 12 Leave a comment on paragraph 12 0 The scholar’s index also instigates connections among scholars by creating a centralized location of information on the Who’s Who of the Digital Religion world. Currently, there are more than 250 scholars with active profiles on the Network. Members have access to view each scholar’s entry in alphabetical order, and can also edit their own profile to update information as necessary. Scholars are listed by name, affiliation, and keywords on the main index page. When a specific scholar’s name is selected, a new page opens up with more information including links to the scholar’s web presence, a biographical statement, and the length of membership in the network. Members also have access to a link that allows them to send a private message to the scholar. In this way, the Network provides the tools necessary to start conversations, make connections, and hopefully develop research collaboration among scholars. Although collaboration is a primary objective of digital scholarship, finding partners that are both skilled in Digital Humanities work and in their respective fields can be a challenge. The Network’s scholar’s index takes some of the guesswork out of identifying key scholars in the field, and out of figuring out which email address might actually reach the scholar. When scholars on the Network receive a private message they are notified through a Network-generated email at their listed address, which is kept private.
¶ 13 Leave a comment on paragraph 13 0 Members also have the ability to create and share new knowledge through the news and blog pages. Every page of the site has an “Add Content” section at the bottom. All members have the ability to post a news item by clicking the link at the bottom of any page. On the news page specifically there is a guide on how to add news items to the page, which walks users through the technicalities of adding, saving and editing information. The Network specifically solicits announcements of events, calls for papers or panels, news releases of new research publications, or popular press articles about the intersection of religion and new media. In this way, members are able to inform others, and keep abreast of, interesting happenings within the field. Additionally, if there is a new issue that warrants more discussion than a news items, members can request to be a guest-blogger and will be given special access to post a blog entry. This is another area where scholars can take advantage of the collaborative environment to read about and discuss important topics related to Digital Religion. Part of a collaborative research site is sharing information and being in conversation with other scholars; the news and blog pages provide scholars a chance to create, share, and discuss important research findings and contributions to the field.
¶ 14 Leave a comment on paragraph 14 0 The Network uses four main resources to build a collaborative environment in which to find, share, inform and discuss important topics among interdisciplinary scholars in the field of Digital Religion. The interactive bibliography and scholar’s index provide the foundation by allowing members to co-create an extensive bibliography across academic disciplines. If a student or a new scholar is interested in learning more about the field, they can find established members with whom to form relationships. At the very least, the site provides a central hub where scholars interested in the intersection of religion, new media, and digital culture can find relevant publications, connect with key scholars, and learn and share important news and discussions with each other. However, the collaboration does not end with knowledge; the Network also provides an online collaborative research environment through its researcher’s toolbox.
Online Collaboration Through the Researcher’s Toolbox
¶ 15 Leave a comment on paragraph 15 0 As the field of Digital Religion has expanded, many key scholars in the field have called for new theoretical and methodological tools to examine religious understandings and practices in digital contexts (Campbell, 2017; Lövheim & Campbell, 2017; Hoover & Echchiabi, 2013). In the same sense, Digital Humanities have relatively recently exploded with various computational tools and methods through which to explore and understand culture in various forms. Because the work of Digital Humanities is to document knowledge in ways that scholars can build upon, the researcher’s toolbox seeks to provide scholars not only with information, but also directly to research tools. The toolbox is a repository of links to research resources including training guides, interdisciplinary perspectives on approaches to studying new media and religion, ethical guidelines for doing digital research, and links to outside databases and tools that scholars can use. In addition, the toolbox houses two databases that are geared toward the study of religious mobile applications and religious memes respectively, to which all members will soon have access. The following sections focus on the collaborative creation of the databases and the resulting publications from each project.
¶ 16 Leave a comment on paragraph 16 0 Religious Apps Database. In 2012, after the Network website was publically launched, Campbell submitted another grant proposal to the newly formed Institute for Digital Humanities, Media and Culture at Texas A&M University to develop additional resources to help scholars study a relatively new phenomenon in Digital Religion: religious mobile applications. While earlier studies had explored the use of mobile phones in religious life (see Barendregt, 2009; Campbell, 2010; Horst & Miller, 2006; Roman, 2006; Togarasei, 2012), relatively few articles had broached the topic of religious apps (see Torma & Teusner, 2011; Wagner, 2013; Wyche, Caine, Davison, Patel, Arteaga, & Grinter, 2009). This research project sought to create a unique methodology and research tool that would allow interdisciplinary researchers to study a variety of religious apps. Specifically, the proposal was to build an app database, housed on the Network site, which would provide access to religious apps from a variety of religions that would be categorized into different themes surrounding religious understandings and practices. While this database would obviously speak to specific research questions within the field of Digital Religion, it also has broader relevance to researchers who are researching other types of apps as well by identifying key technological affordances and features that may be found across app categories. In connection to Digital Humanities, the construction of the database and its resulting publications also provide an interesting case on which others looking to create collaborative sites can build.
¶ 17 Leave a comment on paragraph 17 0 The religious app database (see Figure 2) project developed over six different stages. The first of which was to identify and collect information on the various types of religious apps that were available to users. Four researchers, including Heidi Campbell, the primary investigator, and three graduate students from Texas A&M University, Brian Altenhofen, Wendi Bellar, James Cho, were each assigned an iPod or an iPad with which to collect and store religious apps.
¶ 19 Leave a comment on paragraph 19 0 The search began with common keywords such as ‘religion’ and ‘spirituality’ and for apps associated with the five major world religions (i.e. Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism) (see Campbell, Altenhofen, Bellar & Cho, 2014). While the researchers were collecting apps on their devices, they were also building the app database from the ground up by inputting specific information about the apps. This included information such as the name of the app, the name(s) of the app developer(s), contact information of the app developer(s), cost, version, and the app classification listed on iTunes.
¶ 20 Leave a comment on paragraph 20 0 Stage two involved trying to uncover common themes across the religions so that apps within certain categories could be compared and contrasted with one another by researchers. This involved offline meetings where the researchers met and discussed the common themes they were seeing as well as wrestled with the difficulty of placing an app into only one category. Essentially, the team came to the conclusion that it would be impossible to develop mutually exclusive categories, and found that many apps fit into one or more categories in different ways. However, there were 11 distinct categories, such as prayer, focus/meditation, sacred texts, religious social media and religious apps for kids, that emerged from analysis of almost 500 religious apps. These were separated into two parent categories: “apps oriented around religious practice” and “apps embedded with religious content” (Campbell et. al, 2014, p. 164). These parent categories help distinguish the focus of the app, that is, whether the app seeks to reproduce a religious practice in the mobile context, or if the app seeks to provide information, resources, and activities that are not necessarily tied to traditional religious practices (e.g. playing a religious game).
¶ 21 Leave a comment on paragraph 21 0 Stage three, developing methodology, and stage four, creating content analysis tools, took place concurrently. The researchers went back through the database of religious apps and applied the categories to all 488 apps, while at the same time extrapolating data to be used in the content analysis. This was done by importing the data into spreadsheets and conducting manual counts of categories and app information items. At the same time the research team was developing the methodology and conducting the content analysis, some individual members of the team undertook other projects using the database as a starting point for data collection and analysis.
¶ 22 Leave a comment on paragraph 22 0 Stage five involved the research team analyzing the findings and formulating category definitions and basic characteristics. These findings are reported in a 2014 Mobile Media & Communication article written by Campbell, Altenhofen, Bellar, and Cho. The study’s findings showed that relying on the iTunes classifications as a starting point to identifying religious apps was unreliable. Therefore, the new categories were proposed as starting off point for interdisciplinary researchers interested at examining the relationship between mobile media and religion through religious mobile applications.
¶ 23 Leave a comment on paragraph 23 0 At this stage another research team began to use the religious app database for a study of sacred text apps found in the collection, with the intent to compare and contrast how each of the five major world religions presented digitized versions of the texts along with specific digital tools with which to study them. For this study, a new coding sheet was created and the information found within the apps themselves was analyzed for specific technological affordances and the ways they represented the religious messages and practices. Currently, this article by Tsuria, Bellar, Cho and Campbell is forthcoming in the Journal for Contemporary Religion.
¶ 24 Leave a comment on paragraph 24 0 Bellar (2017) also utilized the database to identify and analyze Catholic and Islamic prayer apps in her dissertation. The database was instrumental in collecting a representative sample that fit within the prayer category as defined in Campbell et. al’s (2014) article. In the first phase of Bellar’s study, the prayer apps were examined for the ways in which technological and religious affordances combined to create a mobile prayer environment, and how that environment was being explained and marketed to users from the iTunes app descriptions. In the process, more Islamic prayer apps were identified and added to the database so that future scholars will have access to even more apps. Currently, the database houses more than 500 religious apps from various faiths and categories.
¶ 25 Leave a comment on paragraph 25 0 The sixth and final stage of the app project and database recently came to a close. The goal was to make the database available to all Network members so that researchers will have access to the religious app data, be able to add to update the database, and also work collaboratively with the data on future research projects. Currently, the app database is open to members by request. This phase of the Network project speaks to the visibility and transparency values inherent within the Digital Humanities. Researchers will be able to find and explore specific examples used in the publications, as well as provide critique and inspire conversation surrounding the categories and conclusions from other previous works. As of today, 13 different religions are represented across the more than 500 apps in the database. There is a real need for collaboration to continue this work so that new insights and areas of inquiry are gained to create a clearer picture of mobile religion.
¶ 26 Leave a comment on paragraph 26 0 The religious app database project relied heavily on the value of collaboration during all six stages, from beginning to end. Similarly to the ways in which recent Digital Religion scholars focus on the blending and blurring of the online/offline dichotomy, the database collaboration spanned the boundaries of both online and offline environments. It is important for digital humanities scholars to understand the ways in which acting which these environments enable or constrain collaborative projects. Constant self-reflection, on the part of the researchers as individuals and as a team, is a necessary component to successful collaborations within online communities. The religious meme database project also inhibits these qualities, as well as shows the possibilities of collaboration with undergraduate students.
¶ 27 Leave a comment on paragraph 27 0 Religious-Oriented Meme Database. Two years after the religious app database was constructed, a new database focused on religious memes began to take shape. In the fall of 2014, a group of undergraduates in a Religious Communication course at Texas A&M taught by Heidi Campbell began collecting and analyzing religious internet memes. Religious internet memes have been defined as “memes circulated on the internet whose images and texts focus on a variety of religious themes and or religious traditions,” (Bellar, Campbell, Cho, Terry, Tsuria, Yadlin-Segal, & Zimer, 2013). Under Campbell’s supervision, the undergraduates used this definition to identify specific sub-categories of religious-oriented internet memes. The requirement for including a meme in the sample was that it used specific meme stock characters (e.g. success kid or scumbag Steve) to discuss religion, or how it represented a unique religious meme theme or character created to speak to specific beliefs and/or practices of different religious groups.
¶ 28 Leave a comment on paragraph 28 0 After each religious meme case study was selected, descriptions of each meme type and their origins were entered into the collaborative database housed on the Network (see Fig. 3). Elements of each meme that were uploaded to the database were also recorded included “religious affiliation,” “forms of meme humor,” “meme genre” and “religious meme frame” (Religious-Oriented Meme Database, n.d.). Through this analysis, and the help of information found at knowyourmemes.com, information on more than 150 unique memes about religion and their derivations have been collected on the database. As of this writing, members on the Network can search the database specifically for religious affiliation and type of meme humor. They can also add a new meme or meme derivatives, which are variations on a particular type of meme.
¶ 30 Leave a comment on paragraph 30 0 Collaborative work within the religious-oriented meme database has resulted in one publication and another currently under review. Aguilar, Campbell, Stanley, and Taylor (2017), propose that these religious-oriented memes speak not only to conceptualizations of religion within popular culture, but also how these memes express peoples’ everyday, shifting, flexible conceptualization of their own religious identities (Aguilar et. al, 2017, p. 1499). The research team identified six common genres and five common religious frames used within religious memes from a sample of 78 original memes that are housed on the Network database. Currently a new research team is using the database and helping expand contents through a study focused on American-based religious and political memes, and how they present a unique form of American Civil Religion discourse.
¶ 31 Leave a comment on paragraph 31 0 Similarly to the religious app database, members of the Network have access to explore the memes currently recorded in the database, add new religious memes to the database, and download information about the memes for use in collaborative research projects. This type of work showcases Digital Humanities methods (i.e. database design) for exploring a humanities based subject (i.e. Digital Religion). It is also reflective of the value of transparency within the Digital Humanities, in that all of the data collected and analyzed can be viewed and used for future research. Essentially, these databases become a storehouse of knowledge that can be refined, reshaped, and reused in new forms of Digital Religion scholarship.
¶ 32 Leave a comment on paragraph 32 0 Building databases in which to store, categories, and analyze digital artifacts is one tool with which Digital Humanities scholars can collaborate. The religious app database and the religious meme database are two case studies that are designed to foster collaborative research. That collaboration grows stronger when researchers share access to databases so that others can learn from, recreate, and expand our knowledge and understandings of religious information and practices. Innovations in online collaborative tools will help push the field of Digital Humanities and Digital Religion further by allowing researchers access to specialized knowledge that can be reshape and recreated through democratizing affordances found in digital environments. The next section explores ways in which the Network can continue this mission and impact the field of Digital Religion.
The Future of the Network for New Media, Religion, and Digital Culture Studies
¶ 33 Leave a comment on paragraph 33 0 The Network for New Media, Religion, and Digital Culture Studies mirrors the understandings and elements of successful online collaborative sites as it situated within a context of developing new theoretical insights and methodological tools for exploring Digital Religion. The goals of the Network are to create a centralized location of key works in the field, to connect students and scholars across international and disciplinary boundaries, and to develop new collaborative tools with which to study digital religious phenomena. It achieves these goals chiefly through an interactive bibliography, an index of scholars in the field, and a toolbox of research resources that are open to Network members.
¶ 34 Leave a comment on paragraph 34 0 Limitations do exist in any form of online collaboration. First, the website relies solely on the scholars themselves in order to keep their profiles complete and accurate. Therefore it is necessary to request that scholars update their pages periodically. Whether they update their pages or not is hard to track. Second, the Network must maintain its position as a central hub by attracting new scholars and those outside of academia to take part in the conversation, and by allowing more access to the research databases to outside individuals and groups. Members need to feel agency in not only getting and offering information, but also in recreating, recombining, and integrating that knowledge. One way this can be achieved is through greater access to the data housed on the Network.
¶ 35 Leave a comment on paragraph 35 0 Additionally, the Network should take steps to extend transparency and visibility not only to students and scholars in the field, but also to the public at large. The Network has taken steps in partnering with news outlets such as the Religious News Service (RNS), which publishes news stories related to religion and spirituality in an online news format. Through this relationship, the hope is to “raise public awareness of the unique research being undertaken in new media and religion studies, and translate these important findings to a popular audience,” (Publications and Press, n.d.). Communicating with the public is, and should continue to be, a value that is cultivated within digital scholarship. Partnering with news services is one such way to ensure that the value is honored.
¶ 36 Leave a comment on paragraph 36 0 In Digital Humanities, and in successful online communities, it is important that a group of people work individually and collectively to achieve similar goals. The Network makes its mission clear and invites scholars at all levels to participate in the community, to start new conversations, and develop new digital tools to push the field forward. It does this in the spirit of transparency, interdisciplinary, and collaborative connectivity –values that are shared within Digital Humanities and digital research as a whole.
¶ 37 Leave a comment on paragraph 37 0 Aguilar, G. K., Campbell, H.A., Stanley, M., and Taylor, E. (2017). Communicating mixed messages about religion through internet memes. Information, Communication & Society 20(10), 1498-1520. doi: 10.1080/1369118X.2016.1229004
¶ 38 Leave a comment on paragraph 38 0 Barendregt, B. (2009). Mobile religiosity in Indonesia: Mobilized Islam, Islamized mobility and the potential of Islamic techno nationalism. In E. Alampay’s (Ed.), Living the Information Society in Asia (pp. 73-92). Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
¶ 39 Leave a comment on paragraph 39 0 Bellar, W., Campbell, H.A., Cho, K.J., Terry, A., Tsuria, R., Yadlin-Segal, A., and Ziemer, J. (2013). Reading religion in internet memes. Journal of Religion, Media and Digital Culture, 2(2) 3-39.
¶ 40 Leave a comment on paragraph 40 0 Bellar, W. (2017). iPray: Understanding the relationship between design and use in Catholic and Islamic mobile prayer applications. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
¶ 44 Leave a comment on paragraph 44 0 Campbell, H., Altenhofen, B., Bellar, W., & Cho, K. (2014). There’s a religious app for that!: A framework for studying religious mobile applications. Mobile Media & Communication, 2(2), 154-172. doi: 0.1177/2050157914520846
¶ 46 Leave a comment on paragraph 46 0 International and interdisciplinary research sharing. (2012). The Network for New Media, Religion, and Digital Culture Studies. Video retrieved from http://digitalreligion.tamu.edu/
¶ 48 Leave a comment on paragraph 48 0 Hoover, S. & Echchaibi, N. (2012). The ‘third spaces’ of digital religion. Paper presented at the Center for Media, Religion, and Culture, University of Colorado Boulder. Canterbury, UK: Retrieved from http://cmrc.colorado.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Third-Spaces-Essay-Draft-Final.pdf.
¶ 50 Leave a comment on paragraph 50 0 Kirschenbaum, M. (2012). What is digital humanities and what’s it doing in English departments? Debates in the digital humanities, (pp. 3-11). Minneapolis, MN:University of Minnesota.
¶ 51 Leave a comment on paragraph 51 0 Lövheim, M., and Campbell, H. A. (2017). Considering critical methods and theoretical lenses in digital religion studies. New Media & Society 19(1), 5-14. doi: 10.1177/1461444816649911
¶ 52 Leave a comment on paragraph 52 0 Ma, M., and Agarwal, R. (2007). Through a glass darkly? Information technology, identity verification, and knowledge contribution in online communities. Information Systems Research 18(1), 42-67. doi: 10.1287/isre.1070.0113
¶ 53 Leave a comment on paragraph 53 0 Publications and Press. (n.d.). The Network for New Media, Religion, and Digital Culture Studies. Retrieved on September 15, 2017 from http://digitalreligion.tamu.edu/publications-press
¶ 54 Leave a comment on paragraph 54 0 Religious Apps Database. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://digitalreligion.tamu.edu/religious_app College Station, TX: The Network for New Media, Religion, and Digital Culture Studies.
¶ 55 Leave a comment on paragraph 55 0 Religious-Oriented Meme Database. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://digitalreligion.tamu.edu/religious-oriented-meme-database College Station, TX: The Network for New Media, Religion, and Digital Culture Studies.
¶ 56 Leave a comment on paragraph 56 0 Roman, A. (2006). Texting God: SMS & religion in the Philippines. Paper presented at the 5th International Conference on Media, Religion and Culture, Stockholm, July 2006. Retrieved from http://www.freinademetzcenter.org/pdf/Texting%20God%20SMS%20and%20Religion%20in%20the%20Philippines.pdf.
¶ 57 Leave a comment on paragraph 57 0 Spiro, L. (2012). This is why we fight: Deﬁning the values of the digital humanities. In M. K. Gold’s (ed.) Debates in the digital humanities, (pp.16-35). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.
¶ 58 Leave a comment on paragraph 58 0 Togarasei, L. (2012). Mediating the Gospel: Pentecostal Christianity and media technology in Botswana and Zimbabwe. Journal of Contemporary Religion, 27(2), 257-274.
¶ 60 Leave a comment on paragraph 60 0 Wagner, R. (2013). You are what you install: Religious authenticity and identity in mobile apps. In H. Campbell (Ed.), Digital religion: Understanding religious practices in new media worlds (pp. 199-206). London: Routledge.
¶ 61 Leave a comment on paragraph 61 0 Wyche, S. P., Caine, K. E., Davison, B. K., Patel, S. N., Arteaga, M., & Grinter, R. E. (2009, April). Sacred imagery in techno-spiritual design. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 55-58). ACM.